what is retinoblastoma ? and why it will causes? and its treatment.
Retinoblastoma is a type of cancer that begins in the retina of eyes. commonly it will affects for children, and rarely in adults.
Causes for retinoblastoma:–
- retinoblastoma will occurs when the nerve cells of the retina develop genetic mutations. These mutations cause the cells to continue growing and multiplying when healthy cells would die, this accumulating mass of cells forms a tumor.
- The cells of retinoblastoma can invade other cells of the eye and nearby structures. retinoblastoma can also spread (metastasize) to other areas of the body, including brain and spinal cord.
- In the majority of the cases, it’s not clear what causes the genetic mutations that leads to retinoblastoma, however it is possible for children to inherit a genetic mutation from their parents.
signs and symptoms of retinoblastoma:-
- a white color in the center circle of the eye (Pupil) when light is shown in the eye, such as when taking a flash photograph
- eye appears like looking in different directions
- redness in the eyes
- swelling of eyes
Diagnosis of retinoblastoma:-
The tests and diagnosis used to diagnose retinoblastoma includes,
- Eye examination : the ophthalmologist will conduct an eye exam to determine what’s causing the child’s signs and symptoms. for a more through exam, the doctor may recommend using anesthetics to keep the child still.
- imaging tests should be conducted
Treatment used to treat retinoblastoma :-
For the treatment of children retinoblastoma depends on the size and location of the tumor, whether cancer has spread to areas other than eye.
so depending on the conditions, treatment will be given to the patient, it includes some therapies such as ;
- and surgery
- The children with retinoblastoma, chemotherapy may help to shrink a tumor so another treatment, may be used to treat the remaining cancer cells. This may improve chances that the child won’t need surgery.
- chemotherapy may also be used to treat retinoblastoma that has spread to tissues outside the eyeball or to other areas of the body.
this therapy is an effective therapy for the treatment of retinoblastoma, in this therapy they use effective X-rays for the treatment of retinoblastoma.
types of radiation therapy are:
- external radiation
- external beam radiation
- Laser photo coagulation
When tumor is too large to be treated by other methods, surgery may be used to treat retinoblastoma. In these situations, surgery to remove the eye may help to prevent the spread of cancer to other parts of the body.
The surgery for retinoblastoma includes ;
- Enucleation -removing of infected eye by surgery
- eye implantation
side effects of surgery include;
- Removing of an eye affects the child’s vision, through most children will adapt to the loss of an eye over time.