Side effects of phenytoin,griseofulvin,etc

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Phenytoin: adverse effects: 1.Hirsutism 2.Enlarged gums 3.Nystagmus 4.Yellow-browning of skin 5.Teratogenicity. 6.Osteomalacia 7.Interference with B12 metabolism (hence anemia) Neuropathies: vertigo, ataxia, and headache….
Hirsutism

Tetracycline adverse effects: K-kidney toxicity A-antianabolic effect P-phototoxicity I-inc ICP L-liver toxicity D-diabetes insipidus E-enamel problems V-vestibular toxicity .
Kidney toxicity

Aspirin Side effects: Asthma Salicyalism Peptic ulcer disease Phosphorylation(oxidation uncoupling)/ PPH/ Platelet disaggregation/ Premature closure of PDA Intestinal blood loss Reye’s syndrome Idiosyncracy Noise.

Peptic ulcer caused by aspirin

Methyldopa Side effects : Mental retardation Electrolyte imbalance Tolerance Headache/ Hepatotoxicity Psychological upset Lactation in female Dry mouth Oedema Parkinsonism Anaemia (haemolytic)

Chloramphenicol adverse effects: S-superinfections B-bone marrow depression I-irritative effects G-Gray baby syndrome H-hypersensitivity

Morphine:side-effects: myosis Out of it (sedation) Respiratory depression Pneumonia (aspiration) Hypotension Infrequency (constipation, urinary retention) Nausea Emesis

Miosis : Dilation of the pupil

Grey Baby Syndrome- Chloramphenicol

 Pin Point Pupil-Morphine

Reyes Syndrome- Aspirin

Urine Coloration- Rifampicin

Frontal Headache- Indomethacin

Captopril-Persistent dry cough

Bleomycin-Pulmonary fibrosis

 Vancomycin- Red man syndrome

Nicotinic acid- Flush

Steven Johnsons syndrome- Allopurinol

sulphonamides-kernicterus

 aminoglycosides-ototoxicity

discoloration of teeth-tetracycline

doxorubicin & duanorubucin- cardiomyopathy.

 chloroquine- cardiotoxicity

 doxycycline- esophageal ulceration

vincristine & vinblastine- neuropathy

cyclophosphamide- alopecia

cimetidine & spironolactone- gynaecomastia

Effects of drugs during pregnancy on fetus 

Antiepileptics- neuraltube defect

 Warfarin- cleft palate

 thalidomide- phocomalia

alcohol- cranial bone formation impairment

ANTIDOTES 

benzodiazepine- flumazenil

 paracetamol- N-acetyl cysteine

 Morphine- naloxone

 nitrites- methylene blue

 organophosphorus compd.- DAM, PAM, Atropine

Atropine- Physostigmine

lead- BAL

cyanide- edetate+amyl nitrite

Some important drugs and its mechanism…

1. Nalidixic Acid-Prevent DNA synthesis

 2. Dapsone-Folic acid synthesis inhibitor

3. Vinca alkaloid-Mitotic Spindle formation prevention

4. anthracycline-Intercalation of DNA

5. Methotraxate- Folic acid reductase inhibitor.

 6. Warfarin-Vit k antagonist

 7. Zidovudine- Inhibits the enzyme reverse transcriptase, preventing DNA replication

8. Metronidazole- disruption of helical structure of DNA

9. Tetracycline- Inhibits Protein synthesis by acting on 30 S unit of ribosome

10. Erythromycin- Inhibits Protein synthesis by acting on 50 S unit of ribosome

 11. Chloroquine- Binds and alters properties of microbial and fungal DNA

 12. Diazepam- GABA facilitator

 13. Acetazolamide- Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

14. Allopurinol- Xanthine oxidase inhibitor, inhibitor of uric acid

15. Fluconalzole- P450 enzyme 14α-demethylase Inhibitor

16. Salbutamol-Beta 2 receptor agonist

17. Tolnaftate- Inhibit squalene epoxidase which is necessary for ergosteral syns of fungal cell wall

18. Griesofulvin-inhibits fungal cell wall activity

 19. Chloramphenicol-Inhibition of Protein syntheses

 20. Levodopa- Replenish Brain deleted dopamine

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