Is Cinchona officinalis is having anthelmenthic activity?

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India is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of biodiversity, has 15 agro-climatic
zones. Out of the 17000-18000 species of flowering plants, more than 7000 are estimated to
have medicinal usage in folk and documented systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Unani,
Siddha & Homoeopathy (AYUSH System of Medicine).medicinal plants are not only a major
resource base for the traditional medicine & herbal industry but also provide livelihood and
health security to a large segment of Indian population. About 1178 species of medicinal plants
are estimated to be in trade of which 242 species have annual consumption levels in excess of
100 metric tons/year. The domestic demand of medicinal plants has been estimated 1,95,000
MT for the year of 2014-2015 and export demand of medicinal plants has been estimated
1,34,500 MT during 2014-2015. Total consumption of herbal raw drug in the country for the
year 2014-15 has been estimated at 5,12,000 MT with corresponding trade value of ₹ 5,500
Crore. The major increase has been recorded in export value which has increased from ₹
345.80 Crore in 2005-06 to ₹ 3211 Crore in 2014-15, registering a nine fold increase in during
last decade.Some of the plants which have been proved traditionally are used in the treatment
of different diseases, drugs/plants like,

1) Turmeric:- it is used in stopping of DNA mutation, Arthritis, anti inflammatory , preventing
cancer , and antibacterial and also used to treat several skin diseases.
2) Clove:-Antioxidant , antibacterial ,anticancer etc.
3) Crinum asiaticum: used as antioxidant , antimicrobial ,anthelmenthic , vermicide etc
4) Semicarpus anacardium: is used as antimicrobial , anthelminthic , vermicide ,etc

Helminthiasis:-
Helminths (from the Greek Helminths, meaning worm) include three groups of parasitic worm,
large multicellular organisms with complex tissues and organs. Helminths do not replicate
within the human host except Strongyloides stercoralis. Prevalence is commonly combined
with worm burden (intensity of infection), which is commonly measured by the number of eggs
per gram (EPGs) of faeces for intestinal helminths and schistosomes. Based on EPGs and their
association with morbidity, individuals are classified into categories of light, moderate and
heavy infection by the WHO. In the case of soil-transmitted helminths, the WHO recommends
use of both prevalence and intensity of infection to classify communities into transmission
categories—category I (high), category II (medium), and category III (low). The neglected status
of the helminthiasis should be addressed on community levels and globally all over the world.
Helminthiasis is also known as worm infection, is any microparasitic disease humans and other
animals in which a part of the body is infected with parasitic worms, known as helmenths.
There are various species of these parasites, which are broadly classified into tapeworms,
flukes and roundworms. They often live in the GI tract of their hosts, but they may also burrow
into other organs, where they induce physiological damage.Types of worms which causes
helminthiasis are ; Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepsis nana, toxocara canis , toxocara cati, and
round worms like Filariasis, tape worms like, Echinococcosis. Symptoms occurs like , abdominal
pain , diarrhea, nausea ,vomiting, gas bloating, fatigue. Causes that occurs in helminthiasis,
blindness, anaemia, protein calorie malneutrition, growth slunting, elephantiasis.
Helmenths are transmitted to humas in many different ways, the simplest way is the accidental
injection of infective eggs,(Ascaris, Toxocora). And also transmitted through soil.
Anthelmentics:- antihelmenthics are a group of antiparasitic drugs that expel parasitic worms
and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without
causing significant damage to the host they may also called as vermifuge or vermicides.
Modern synthetic medicines are very effective in curing diseases but also cause a number of
side effects. Crude drugs are less efficient with respect to cure of diseases but are relatively
free from side effects. Parasites have been of concern to the medical field for centuries and the
helminths considered causing considerable problems for human beings and animals. A large
number of medicinal plants are claimed to possess anthelmintic property in traditional systems
of medicine and are also utilized by ethnic groups worldwide. Following the folk claims, several
medicinal plants have been scrutinized for this activity using various in vitro and in
vivo methods. The present review summarizes some important pharmacological and
preliminary studies on medicinal plants, products thereof and isolated principles from them,
which can be investigated further to achieve lead molecules in the search of novel herbal
drugs.

Here some of the herbal drugs which have been previously proved as antihelmenthic activity:
Punica granatum ,Butea monosperma ,Cucurbita maxiama ,Capparis decidua, murraya koenigii
linn, Ocimum tenuiflorum, paperbetle linn .Tracyspermum ammi ,Cumifera mukul ,Nilumba
nucifera gaerth , acasia catechu , Nigella sativum.Nilumba nucifera which is one of the
medicinal plant which has been proved as antihelmentic,which is commonly known as,,It is
commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout asia.
All parts of the nucifera has been used for various medicinal purposes, its fruits and seeds are
also consumed but to less extent.many compounds were extracted and purified from the
leaves of nilumba nucifera , these compounds includes Lysic amines ,Anonaine ,Asimilobine
,Caaverine ,N-methyle asimilobine ,Nuciferine ,Nor nuciferine, Roemerine etc. Nilumba
nucifera is considered to be sacrid, symbol of purity, devine beauty, resurrection and
engliglement.It is used in the treatment of sunstroke diarhea, diesentry, hemmerhoids,
dizziness, vomiting of blood uterine bleeding disorder, promoting conceptions, improving the
skin conditions, cough, fever,Urinary problems. Many pharmacological studies proven its
antidiarrheal, Anti-inflamatory ,antipyretic, hypoglycemic , anticancer ,antiviral etc. Hence
herbal drugs are
Antihelmenthic activities of these drugs such as Punica granatum ,Butea monosperma
,Cucurbita maxiama ,Capparis decidua, murraya koenigii linn, Ocimum tenuiflorum, paperbetle
linn .Tracyspermum ammi ,Cumifera mukul ,Nilumba nucifera gaerth , acasia catechu , Nigella
sativum, drugs are proved which shows antihelmenthic activity and have got a desirable
results.
One such plant I have selected, the complete treatment of helminthiasis have not been proved,
so one such research plant I have found which have been mentioned in Indian medicinal plants
written by Arya vaidyasala, but not been exploited as antihelmenthic i,e. Cinchona officinalis.

Cinchona officinalis :-[1]
Synonyms : C. succirubra Pav. ex Klotzsch , C. condaminea Humb and Bonpl, C. calisaya
Wedd., C. rubra L.
Common names : Hindi: Kunain Ka Pair; English: Peruvian bark; French: Quinquina; German:
Chinarinde.vv
Description : A slender tree, 7 to 10 meter high, rough, brown, yellow within, with black and
whitish marking on the bark. Leaves small, smooth, ovate-lanceolate; shining and reddish
petioles. Flowers rosy. Macroscopical : Stem bark quilled or curved pieces, up to 30 cm or more
long and from about 2 to 6 mm thick; outer surface dull brown-grey or grey frequently bearing
lichens and mosses; usually rough, being marked with transverse fissures varying in type,
according to the species and often numerous; longitudinally either furrowed or wrinkled and
fissured, exfoliation of the outer bark occurring in some varieties; inner surface striated and
varying in colour, from pale-yellowish brown to deep reddish-brown; fracture short in the
external layers and fibrous in the inner layers. Microscopical : The diagnostic characters are
thin walled cork cells; numerous isolated, yellowish, spindle-shaped, striated phloem fibres,
upto 90 µ in diameter with conspicuous somewhat funnel shaped pits; small number of starch
grain, about 6 to 10 µ in diameter from the parenchyma; parenchymatous idioblasts filled with
microcrystals of calcium oxalate; very rare stone cells. The most important alkaloid is quinine.
is a shrub or tree with rugose bark and branchlets covered in minute hairs. Stipules lanceolate or
oblong, acute or obtuse, glabrous. Leaves lanceolate to elliptic or ovate, usually about 10
centimetres (3.9 in). long and 3.5–4 centimetres (1.4–1.6 in). wide; acute, acuminate, or obtuse
tip; base rounded to attenuate; coriaceous, glabrous above and often lustrous; glabrous beneath
or puberulent or short-pilose, especially on the veins. Inflorescences in terminal panicles, manyflowered; hypanthium with short coarse hairs; reddish calyx, glabrous or nearly so, with triangular
lobes; pink or red corolla, sericeous, the lobes ovate, acute, the corolla tube being about 1 cm.
long. Fruit and oblong capsule, 1.
5–2 cm. long, almost glabrous. Work which is already proved by cinchona officinalis. Its chemical
constituents includes: Alkaloids are considerable chemical consitituent of chinchona.

 Cinchona bark containing about 30 types of alkaloids, which belong to quinoline group.  The
important alkaloids of cinchona bark is quinidine, quinine , cinchonina and cinchonidine. 
These 4 chemical consitituents are present in bark they are stereoisomers of each other. 
Cinchona may be present other chemicals like quiniarine, cinchotine , hydroquinine,
hydrocinchonidine and cinchotannic acid.  Methoxy group like quinidine and quinine is
present but no methoxy group like chinchonine and cinchonidine is present.  Starch grains
and bitter glycosides is present in cinchona.  They are also contain crystalline acid and calcium
oxalate like quinic acid.  The total alkaloids not less than 6.5 percentage in cinchona.  The
cinchona contains 30 to 60 percentage of quinine alkaloids [5].
Cinchona is a official phytomedicine, which are used formulation of quinine from the cinchona
species, these are used for anti- fever agent. It is veryuseful in prevention and treatment of
malaria. Oher alkaloids like chinchonine, cinchonidine and quinidine are extracted from this
tree.  These are also produce analgesic, antipyretic and protoplasmic properties.  These are
used for bitter stomach and toxic.  If the quinidine are producing cardiac depressant property.
 They are treats rheumatism and neuralgia.  These are also used to treatment of cardiac
arrhythmia.  These are also used in antiseptic and also useful in diseases such as abscesses,
cavities and ulcers.  These are also used to treatment of dyspepsia and gastric catarrh.[4]
Review of literature: A slender tree, 7 to 10 meter high, rough, brown, yellow within, with
black and whitish marking on the bark. Leaves small, smooth, ovate-lanceolate; shining and
reddish petioles. Flowers rosy. Macroscopical : Stem bark quilled or curved pieces, up to 30 cm
or more long and from about 2 to 6 mm thick; outer surface dull brown-grey or grey frequently
bearing lichens and mosses; usually rough, being marked with transverse fissures varying in
type, according to the species and often numerous; longitudinally either furrowed or wrinkled
and fissured, exfoliation of the outer bark occurring in some varieties; inner surface striated
and varying in colour, from pale-yellowish brown to deep reddish-brown; fracture short in the
external layers and fibrous in the inner layers. Cinchona is a official phytomedicine, which are
used formulation of quinine from the cinchona species, these are used for anti- fever agent. It
is very useful in prevention and treatment of malaria. Oher alkaloids like chinchonine,
cinchonidine and quinidine are extracted from this tree.

 These are also produce analgesic, antipyretic and protoplasmic properties.

 These are used for bitter stomach and toxic.

 If the quinidine are producing cardiac depressant property.

 They are treats rheumatism and neuralgia.

 These are also used to treatment of cardiac arrhythmia.

 These are also used in antiseptic and also useful in diseases such as abscesses, cavities and ulcers.

 These are also used to treatment of dyspepsia and gastric catarrh.[4]
In the natural habitat of Cinchona , high, evenly distributed annual rainfall (up to 4000 mm) and
high relative humidity prevail. Cinchona grows optimally with a rainfall of 2500-3800 mm well distributed throughout the year. Nevertheless, Cinchona is known to grow under drier conditions as
well (1500 mm, with distinct dry season) and it can stand an annual precipitation of 5000 mm, provided this is well distributed throughout the year. Low irradiation (misty slopes, forest canopy) is
frequently encountered in regions where Cinchona occurs naturally.
In Asia, Cinchona grows well in areas with an average minimum temperature of 14°C and an average maximum temperature of 21°C. Growth is hampered severely below 7°C and above 27°C. Altitudinal range is largely determined by the prevailing climatic conditions, but generally lies between 800-2000 m. It has been reported that the yield of quinine is low in plants cultivated under
800 m altitude, and that the plants are susceptible to diseases. Growth is slow at elevations above
2000 m. Cinchona cannot stand waterlogging.
Its chemical constituents includes: Alkaloids are considerable chemical consitituent of
chinchona.  Cinchona bark containing about 30 types of alkaloids, which belong to quinoline
group.  The important alkaloids of cinchona bark is quinidine, quinine , cinchonina and
cinchonidine.  These 4 chemical consitituents are present in bark they are stereoisomers of
each other.  Cinchona may be present other chemicals like quiniarine, cinchotine ,
hydroquinine, hydrocinchonidine and cinchotannic acid.  Methoxy group like quinidine and
quinine is present but no methoxy group like chinchonine and cinchonidine is present.  Starch
grains and bitter glycosides is present in cinchona.  They are also contain crystalline acid and
calcium oxalate like quinic acid.  The total alkaloids not less than 6.5 percentage in cinchona. 
The cinchona contains 30 to 60 percentage of quinine alkaloids [5].
Favourable soil types are slightly acid, well drained, with a good water-retaining
capacity. Cinchona grows well on soils of volcanic origin. The most important
species, C. officinalis , is very vulnerable to weed competition; C. pubescens is more
competitive[6]
. In the review literature we are discussing for the cinchona. It is widely used in
pharmaceutical field. These are contains for the various types of alkaloids like quinine,
quinidine, cinchonine and cinchonidine etc they have antimalerial property which have vital
role in pharmaceutical field. Cinchona is popular for antimalerial property but as well as it have
analgesic, antipyretic, protoplasmic, rheumatism, neuralgia, cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac

depressant property. Thus promoted us to design and investigate anthelminthic activity of
cinchona officinalis against the pheretima posthuma.
Methodology:-
1.collection and identification of dried barks of cinchona officinalis :-
Barks of cinchona officinalis will be collected from its natural habitat, from the local
regions of Mysore district, Karnataka. The plant will be identified and authenticated.
2.To prepare the different solvents extracts of cinchona officinalis bark:
Chloroform, ether, ethanol, ethyl acetate ,benzene, methanol.
3.Identification of active phytochemical constituents present in cinchona officinalis bark:-
All the phytochemical constituents of cinchona officinalis bark where identified by
quantitatively standard protocol test.
4.Collection and identification of worms:[procurement of helminths]
pheretima posthuma :it is an Indian earth worm will be collected from the local
region tank, Mysore district, Karnataka. and will be identified by the department of zoology ,
Mysore.
5.Evaluation of invitro anthelminthic activity : All the worms pheretima posthuma is selected
to anthelmenthic study by using different groups and different concentrations , of test sample
with that of the standard drug. All the test solutions and standard solutions will be prepared
freshly before starting the experiment. The mean time of paralysis, time of death of worm will
be recorded.
Conclussion:-In the review literature we are discussing for the cinchona. It is widely used in
pharmaceutical field. These are contains for the various types of alkaloids like quinine,
quinidine, cinchonine and cinchonidine etc they have antimalerial property which have vital
role in pharmaceutical field. Cinchona is popular for antimalerial property but as well as it have
analgesic, antipyretic, protoplasmic, rheumatism, neuralgia, cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac
depressant property. So it is not been proved for its anthelmenthic activity, so I have selected
this plant which have been previously exploited

Reference:-
1) Indian medicinal plants – A compendium of 500 species By Arya vaidyasala – 5 volumes
2) Wikipedia
3) Glossary of Indian medicinal plants by – RN. Chopra ,SL nayar , IC chopra
4) Goss, Andrew (2014). “Building the world’s supply of quinine: Dutch colonialism and
the origins of a global pharmaceutical industry”. Endeavour. 38 (1): 8–18.
doi:10.1016/j.endeavour.2013.10.002. PMID 24287061.
5) https://gpatindia.com/cinchona-biological-source-morphological-features-chemicalconstituentsand-mcqs/.
6) https://uses.plantnetproject.org/en/Cinchona_(PROSEA)#:~:text=In%20Asia%2C%20Cinchona%20grows%20
well,and%20above%2027%C2%B0C.&text=Cinchona%20grows%20well%20on%20soils,
The%20most%20important%20species%2C%20C.

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